What kind of fool would drive over 900 miles hike 20+ miles in less than desirable weather conditions all this covered in poison ivy then wake up the next day and hike 3 more miles just to photograph more wildflowers. The same fool sitting behind the keyboard right now !!
When the time is right you have to go where the bloom is and the flowers happen to be blooming here in Madison Indiana and also at the Great Smoky Mountain National Park now so there is little time for activities such as sleep, paying bills and work lol !!
So far I have captured a lot of great images so I will start posting them as they get processed, the first ones will come from here in Southern Indiana at Clifty Falls State Park . Every year I tend to miss these little gems that tend to bloom earlier than the other plants but with the late spring and cold temps I was right on time for this variety for once, Bloodroot is the flower and according to Wikipedia…
Sanguinaria canadensis, bloodroot, is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America. It is the only species in the genus Sanguinaria, included in the family Papaveraceae, and most closely related to Eomecon of eastern Asia.
Sanguinaria canadensis is also known as bloodwort, red puccoon root, and sometimes pauson. It has also been known as tetterwort in the US, although that name is used in Britain to refer to Chelidonium majus. Plants are variable in leaf and flower shape and have in the past been separated out as different subspecies due to these variable shapes. Currently most taxonomic treatments lump these different forms into one highly variable species. In bloodroot, the juice is red and poisonous.
Sanguinaria canadensis, is a variable species growing from 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in) tall, normally with one large, sheath-like basal multi-lobed leaf up to 12 centimetres (4.7 in) across. Bloodroot stores sap in an orange colored rhizome, that grows shallowly under or at the soil surface. Over many years of growth, the branching rhizome can grow into a large colony. Plants start to bloom before the foliage unfolds in early spring and after blooming the leaves expand to their full size and go summer dormant in mid to late summer.
The flowers are produced from March to May, with 8-12 delicate white petals and yellow reproductive parts. The flowers appear over clasping leaves while blooming. The flowers are pollinated by small bees and flies, seeds develop in elongated green pods 40 to 60 mm in length and ripen before the foliage goes dormant. The seeds are round in shape and when ripe are black to orange-red in color.
Bloodroot is native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Florida, United States, and west to Great Lakes and down the Mississippi embayment.
Sanguinaria canadensis plants are found growing in moist to dry woods and thickets, often on flood plains and near shores or streams on slopes. They grow less frequently in clearings and meadows or on dunes, and are rarely found in disturbed sites. Deer will feed on the plants in early spring.
Bloodroot is one of many plants whose seeds are spread by ants, a process called myrmecochory. The seeds have a fleshy organ called an elaiosome that attracts ants. The ants take the seeds to their nest, where they eat the elaiosomes, and put the seeds in their nest debris, where they are protected until they germinate. They also get the added bonus of growing in a medium made richer by the ant nest debris.
Sanguinaria canadensis is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The double flowering forms are prized by gardeners for their large showy white flowers, which are produced very early in the gardening season. Bloodroot flower petals are shed within a day or two of pollination so the flower display is short lived. The double forms bloom much longer than the normal forms, the double flowers are made up of stamens that have been changed into petal looking like parts, making pollination more difficult.
The cultivar S. canadensis f. multiplex ‘Plena’ has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Merit.
Bloodroot produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, primarily the toxin sanguinarine. The alkaloids are transported to and stored in the rhizome. Comparing the biosynthesis of morphine and sanguinarine, the final intermediate in common is (S)-reticuline. A number of plants in Papaveraceae and Ranunculaceae, as well as plants in the genus Colchicum (family Colchicaceae) and genus Chondodendron (family Menispermaceae), also produce such benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.
Plant geneticists have identified and sequenced genes which produce the enzymes required for this production. One enzyme involved is CYP80B1, which produces (S)-3′-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine and mendococlaurine from (S)-N-methylcoclaurine.
Sanguinarine kills animal cells by blocking the action of Na+/K+-ATPase transmembrane proteins. As a result, applying bloodroot to the skin may destroy tissue and lead to the formation of a large scab, called an eschar. Bloodroot and its extracts are thus considered escharotic.
Internal use is inadvisable. Applying escharotic agents, including bloodroot, to the skin is sometimes suggested as a home treatment for skin cancer, these attempts can be severely disfiguring. Salves derived from bloodroot cannot be relied on to remove an entire malignant tumor. Microscopic tumor deposits may remain after visible tumor tissue is burned away, and case reports have shown that in such instances tumor has recurred and/or metastasized.
Numerous pre-clinical in vitro studies have demonstrated that sanguinarine causes targeted apoptosis in human cancer cells with little reaction from normal cells, and recommend future study of sanguinarine as a potential cancer treatment
Bloodroot was used historically by Native Americans for curative properties as an emetic, respiratory aid, and other treatments.
In physician William Cook’s 1869 work The Physiomedical Dispensatory is recorded a chapter on the uses and preparations of bloodroot, which described tinctures and extractions, and also included at least the following cautionary report:The U. S. Dispensatory says four persons lost their lives at Bellevue Hospital, New York, by drinking largely of blood root tincture in mistake for ardent spirits […]
Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus), a member of the Poppy family (Papaveraceae) was used in Colonial America as a wart remedy. Bloodroot has been similarly applied in the past. This may explain the multiple American and British definitions of “Tetterwort” in 1913.
Bloodroot extracts have also been promoted by some supplement companies as a treatment or cure for cancer, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has listed some of these products among its “187 Fake Cancer ‘Cures’ Consumers Should Avoid”. Indeed, far from curing cancer, products containing bloodroot are strongly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, which is a premalignant lesion that may develop into oral cancer.
Commercial uses of sanguinarine and bloodroot extract include dental hygiene products. The United States FDA has approved the inclusion of sanguinarine in toothpastes as an antibacterial or anti-plaque agent.[non-primary source needed][non-primary source needed] However, the use of sanguinaria in oral hygiene products is associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, a premalignant lesion which may develop into oral cancer. On 24 Nov 2003, the Colgate-Palmolive Company of Piscataway, New Jersey, United States commented by memorandum to the United States Food and Drug Administration that then-proposed rules for levels of sanguinarine in mouthwash and dental wash products were lower than necessary. However, this conclusion is controversial.
Some animal food additives sold and distributed in Europe such as Phytobiotics’ Sangrovit contain sanguinarine and chelerythrine. On 14 May 2003, Cat Holmes reported in Georgia Faces that Jim Affolter and Selima Campbell, horticulturists at the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, were meeting with Phytobiotics to relate their research into commercial cultivation of bloodroot.
Bloodroot is a popular red natural dye used by Native American artists, especially among southeastern rivercane basketmakers. The blood of the root (when cut open) was used as a dye. A break in the surface of the plant, especially the roots, reveals a reddish sap.
Ok I know that is way too much info but of course I know you skipped over it to the see the pics lol !!
So thanks for stopping by and taking a look and here are couple images of the Bloodroot to go along with the info.
12 thoughts on “Wildflowers | Clifty Falls State Park Madison Indiana”
Aaah the glories of Apoptosis – where would we be without it! Fascinating info and beautiful photos!
Thank you Vanessa !!
I went out last week to photograph wildflowers here in southeast Pennsylvania. The bloodroot were perfect! Such gorgeous flowers. Your photos are really good! How did you get the dark, uncluttered backgrounds? That is the most challenging aspect of photographing wildflowers.
Anita I try to find a subject that has a good distance between the subject and background and try to keep the plant as shaded as possible.
Beautiful flowers and excellent photos! Wish we had them this far west! They remind me just a little of the Queen’s cup that we do have here.
Thanks Terry !!
I think I may see signs of our bloodroot this weekend, Bernie. Those are a couple of very nice shots and I am always interested in reading floralore. 🙂
Thanks Steve glad you liked it !!
Gorgeous shots Bernie! I really love the second in particular with the unusual angle.Looks like you had to get down pretty darn low!!!
Pretty low indeed Howard lol !!
Wow you sure give a lot of good detail about your subjects. That’s a rarity these days!
Thanks for stopping by and taking a look !!